With a vast territory, fertile land, abundant precipitation, superior natural conditions and rich agricultural resources, Brazil is one of the few countries in the world suitable for the all-round development of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery, and enjoys the reputation of "the world granary of the 21st century".
Brazil's agricultural and animal husbandry production has broad prospects, but it has not always been so. In the 1970s, most of the major food producing countries were temperate climate countries, and the technology at that time was not suitable for the tropical climate of Brazil. The low fertility and acidity of soils in most planting areas in Brazil limit agricultural production. In the following decades, the Brazilian government has continuously increased technological innovation, solved problems such as soil, planting technology and crop gene bank, and liberated productivity.
Today, Brazil's agriculture is not only rich in planting varieties (for example, there are more than 80 varieties of vegetables), but also the planting area and output have increased steadily year by year. According to the annual production survey report released by Brazil agricultural supply company, the planting area of main crops in Brazil reached 68.5 million hectares from 2020 to 2021, an increase of 3.9% compared with the previous year; The output is expected to reach 273.8 million tons, an increase of 6.5% compared with the same period last year. Among them, soybean output was 135.5 million tons, a year-on-year increase of 8.6%, setting a new record.
Professor nardeo of the school of agriculture of the University of Sao Paulo told the science and Technology Daily that over the past 30 years, the production efficiency of agriculture and animal husbandry in Brazil has continued to rise, making a great contribution to meeting the challenge of global sustainable food supply. Three factors ensure the sustainable development of agriculture and animal husbandry in Brazil.
Vigorously develop and popularize new agricultural technologies
Continuous innovation of agricultural technology is one of the important ways for Brazil to revitalize agriculture. The "Brazilian agriculture and animal husbandry research company" under the Ministry of agriculture of Brazil is one of the largest agricultural scientific research institutions in developing countries. It and the "Brazilian agriculture and animal husbandry technology extension company" are specifically responsible for agricultural scientific research and technology extension. Brazilian agriculture and animal husbandry research company has more than 3000 technology promotion stations nationwide, with 23000 employees, including 13000 grass-roots scientific and technological personnel. Over the years, the company has introduced more than 10000 scientific research achievements to the society. Such as soybean variety improvement, comprehensive development and utilization of savanna, Rhizobium breeding technology, new nitrogen fixation technology and bioengineering embryo transfer technology, which have made great contributions to promoting the transformation of Brazilian agriculture to high-yield, high-quality and efficient modern agriculture. After years of exploration and practice, Brazil has successfully developed a series of new technologies for developing savanna and semi-arid soil, increasing the area of agricultural land and enhancing the potential of agricultural development. In Brazil, 28% of the area planted with food and legumes can be harvested twice a year. The crops planted in the first season are usually soybeans. After soybean harvest, crops such as corn, wheat, beans and peanuts will be planted. In the 2018-2019 harvest year, more than 74% of Brazil's total corn production comes from corn planted in the second quarter. The two-season farming system helps to keep the land fertile and improve soil stability. With the continuous development of new agricultural technologies, the Brazilian government has increased investment in the research and production of fine and high value-added agricultural products, gradually changed the structure dominated by the export of primary products, and greatly improved the international competitiveness and market share of its agricultural products.
Increase agricultural infrastructure construction
Since the 1980s, the Brazilian government has increased capital investment in infrastructure such as warehousing and irrigation networks, and provided low interest preferential loans to enterprises building warehousing and rural irrigation facilities. The government also invested US $5 billion to implement the "one million hectares irrigation plan in the northeast", actively introduced Israeli agricultural irrigation technology, expanded the irrigated land area in the arid areas of the northeast, effectively improved the local agricultural production conditions, and built a large number of large agricultural export bases in the region, improving the local agricultural development and farmers' living conditions. In addition, the federal government, together with local governments and private enterprises, has established 10 comprehensive development bases in the Northeast semi desert area, giving priority to the development of rural transportation, so as to reduce agricultural production and transportation costs and lay a solid foundation for agricultural development in backward areas.
Implement the agricultural insurance system and the minimum protection price of agricultural products
Agricultural insurance is exclusively operated by the central bank. It is divided into four stages of insurance preparation, planting, management and sales, and two types of "full insurance" and "sectional insurance". The insurance coverage is limited by the production cost. Agricultural producers can choose corresponding insurance items according to different years, production conditions and crops. According to regulations, while signing insurance contracts, agricultural producers must sign technical service contracts with "Brazilian Agricultural and animal husbandry technology promotion company" and receive technical guidance to ensure agricultural harvest and reduce risks. The minimum protection price of agricultural products is formulated by the Pakistan Production Support Committee, reviewed by the Ministry of agriculture and the national monetary Committee, and promulgated in the form of a decree two months before farmers sow seeds with the approval of the president. Its fundamental purpose is to eliminate the worries of agricultural producers about the sales of agricultural products. Agricultural producers can freely choose crops that can be planted according to local conditions according to the minimum protection price determined by the government for different agricultural products. Once the market price is lower than the minimum protection price, the government will purchase all agricultural products from farmers at the minimum protection price to ensure the basic income of agricultural operators.
At present, Brazil has become one of the world's major agricultural and animal husbandry countries, and its share of global food supply is second only to the United States. According to the Research Report of the Ministry of agriculture, Brazil still has more than 500 million hectares of arable land to be developed. Professor nardeo stressed that agriculture and animal husbandry is an important field for absorbing labor and employment and the basis of social stability. Brazil's foreign trade balance in the next 10 years will still depend on the export of agricultural and animal husbandry products. Brazil has strong scientific research force in agriculture and animal husbandry, sufficient reserve resources and broad development prospects.
Source: Science and Technology Daily